Mae G'ovannen Explanationsindarin Lessons

  1. Mae Govannen Response
  2. Mae Govannen Translation
  3. Mae Govannen Mellon Nin
  4. Mae Govannen Meaning

From Sindarin lessons by Xandarien. Terms in this set (7) Galu! Ae, mae l'ovannen! (formal) Ae, mae g'ovannen! Sindarin doesn't have the same difference between adjectives and adverbs that other languages such as English do. In English you can say 'The quick fox' (where 'quick' is an adjective) or 'The fox ran quickly' (where 'quickly' is an adverb, using the suffix -ly on the adjective 'quick'). Sindarin uses the same word, with no changes.

(to put on your website)

By Fiona J. of Realelvish.net


Mae Govannen Response

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license.

Last Updated: 05/19/2019

Mae G

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Notes on the Pronunciation Guide:

Here is a basic guide so you can learn how to sound out the phrases. I basically used Tolkien's system, with a few changes, which I listed below.

  • Periods indicate divisions between syllable boundaries.
  • Letters in CAPSLOCK indicate syllables with stress on them, that is, said slightly louder than the surrounding syllables.
  • Multiple vowels (like this: AA or AAA) stand for the length of time the vowel is said. More vowels, the longer it takes to say.
  • (A) is always pronounced like the A in 'father'.
  • (E) is always pronounced like the E in 'bet'.
  • (I) is always pronounced like the I in 'machine'.
  • (O) is pronounced like the AW in 'awesome' (in a New Yorker's accent).
  • (U) is always pronounced like the U in 'flute'.
  • (Y) is always pronounced like the French U (lune) or the German Ü (fünf). To make this sound, say an Elvish I with the pursed lips of a U.
  • (J) is used for the consonant Y in 'yellow'. I did this to avoid confusion with the Sindarin vowel Y.
  • (AI) and (AE) are pronounced like the I in 'like'. The diference between them is that in (AI) you glide from an A to I, and in (AE) you glide from an A to an E.
  • (AU) and (AW) are pronounced like the OW in 'cow'.
  • (EI) is pronounced like the EI in 'ray'.
  • (OE) is pronounced like the OY in 'boy'.
  • (UI) is pronounced like the OOEY in 'gooeyt'.
  • (Ñ) is pronounced like the NG in 'sing'.
  • (R) is always a rolled R.
  • (KH) is pronounced like the CH in 'loch' or in the name 'Bach'.
  • (LH) is pronounced like the Welsh LL.
  • (RH) is a whispered rolled R. It sounds like a trilled H.
  • (WH) is a whispered W. In English, it used to be in words with WH in them, like 'white' or 'when'.
  • (TH) and (DH) are pronounced like the English TH. The difference between them is that DH is pronounced like the TH in 'father', and TH is pronounced like the TH in 'nothing'.

Notes on IPA Pronunciation:

The alphabet I used is IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). It is far more accurate than the pronunciation guide above, but more difficult to learn. For more information, see Wikipedia, or voices.com's History of the International Phonetic Alphabet. For more notes, read the Pronunciation Guides.

These phrases are in the style of the 3rd age Elves west of the Misty Mountains, influenced by the exiled Noldor.

The asterisks mark fan-coined words.

Tips for Webdesigners

When dealing with IPA and special characters in general, there are a few things that you will do differently from how you approach normal texts.

  • Special characters need to be encoded as HTML entities, not left naked in the text. This means writing (ê) for (ê) as so on. If you need to find a symbol, I suggest this page: HTML Symbols, Entities, Characters and Codes, which has a pretty thorough list. When copying the phrases onto your website, copy the phrases and their pronunciations from the source-code of this page. Most web-browsers have a 'view source' option of some kind. Use that to grab the code, and the symbols will display properly on your website.

  • Avoid fancy fonts. Most fonts only cover the basic letters and symbols needed and don't bother to include Greek letters or special IPA letters, and your browser will go back to the default font (Times New Roman, usually) for symbols that aren't supported by the font. This will end up looking really weird. So, to start, use a boring, old font. Times New Roman and Arial have the best IPA character sets, I've found, but Times New Roman is probably your best bet. You don't have to make your whole website Times New Roman, but I suggest making a special class for IPA text in your website's CSS file. I included SPAN-tags in the text to make it easier for you.

  1. English: Hi
    Sindarin: A
    Pronunciation: A
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑ/

  2. English: Hail!
    Sindarin: Ai!
    Pronunciation: AI
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑj/

  3. English: A star shines on the hour of our meeting.
    Literal: A star shines over the time of our meeting
    Sindarin: Êl síla erin lû e-govaded 'wîn.
    Pronunciation: EEEL SII.la E.rin LUUU e GO.va.ded WIIIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɛ:ʎ ˈsiˑ.lɑ ˈɛ.rin ˈlu: ɛ ˈgɔ.vɑ.dɛd ˈwi:n/

  4. English: Wellcome!
    Literal: Good/blessed/fortunate-coming
    Sindarin: Aldol!
    Pronunciation: AL.dol
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑl.dɔl/

  5. English: Well met!
    Literal: [familiar] You are well met
    Sindarin: Mae govannen!
    Pronunciation: MAE go.VAN.nen
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈmɑɛ gɔˈvɑn.nɛn/

  6. English: At last!
    Sindarin: Na vedui!
    Pronunciation: na VE.dui
    IPA Pronunciation: /nɑ ˈvɛ.duj/

  7. English: Come near the fire
    Literal: Come to the fire
    Sindarin: Tolo anin naur
    Pronunciation: TO.lo A.nin NAUR
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈtɔ.lɔ ˈɑ.nin ˈnɑur/

  8. English: Come with me
    Literal: Follow me
    Sindarin: Aphado nin
    Pronunciation: A.fa.do NIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.fɑ.dɔ ˈnin/

  9. English: Come, join us
    Literal: Come, meet [exclusive] us
    Sindarin: Tolo, govado ven
    Pronunciation: TO.lo GO.va.do VEN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈtɔ.lɔ ˈgɔ.vɑ.dɔ ˈvɛn/

  10. English: You are welcome here
    Literal: [exclusive] We welcome [familiar] you here
    Sindarin: Gi nathlof hí
    Pronunciation: gi NATH.lov HII
    IPA Pronunciation: /gi ˈnɑθ.lɔv ˈhiˑ/

  11. English: You are welcome here
    Literal: [exclusive] We welcome [reverential] you here
    Sindarin: Le nathlof hí
    Pronunciation: le NATH.lov HII
    IPA Pronunciation: /lɛ ˈnɑθ.lɔv ˈhiˑ/

  12. English: Enjoy yourself
    Literal: Be joyous
    Sindarin: No veren
    Pronunciation: no VE.ren
    IPA Pronunciation: /nɔ ˈvɛ.rɛn/

  13. English: Farewell
    Literal: Be good
    Sindarin: Novaer
    Pronunciation: NO.vaer
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈnɔ.vɑɛr/

  14. English: Good luck/Good Bye
    Sindarin: Galu
    Pronunciation: GA.lu
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈgɑ.lu/

  15. English: Have joy and laughter
    Literal: Have joy and laughter
    Sindarin: Savo 'lass a lalaith
    Pronunciation: SA.vo LASS a LA.laith
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈsɑ.vɔ ˈlɑs ɑ ˈlɑ.lɑjθ/

  16. English: I must go
    Literal: It is necessary to me to leave
    Sindarin: Boe annin mened
    Pronunciation: BOE AN.nin ME.ned
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈbɔɛ ˈɑn.nin ˈmɛ.nɛd/

  17. English: Let's go
    Literal: [inclusive] We shall [willingly] go
    Sindarin: Menathab
    Pronunciation: ME.na.thab
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈmɛ.nɑ.θɑb/

  18. English: My heart shall weep until I see you again
    Literal: My soul weeps until you and I meet again
    Sindarin: I faer nîn *nínia *aden a-govedinc
    Pronunciation: i FAER NIIIN NII.ni.a A.den a.GO.ve.diñk
    IPA Pronunciation: /i ˈfɑɛr ˈni:n ˈniˑ.ni.ɑ ˈɑ.dɛn ɑˈgɔ.vɛ.diŋk/

  19. English: Sleep well
    Sindarin: *Loro vae
    Pronunciation: LO.ro VAE
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈlɔ.rɔ ˈvɑɛ/

  20. English: Rest well
    Sindarin: *Posto vae
    Pronunciation: POS.to VAE
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈpɔs.tɔ ˈvɑɛ/

  21. English: Sweet dreams
    Literal: Dream well
    Sindarin: Ollo vae
    Pronunciation: OL.lo VAE
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɔl.lɔ ˈvɑɛ/

  22. English: Until next we meet
    Literal: To the time of our meeting
    Sindarin: Na lû e-govaded 'wîn
    Pronunciation: na LUUU e GO.va.ded WIIIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /nɑ ˈlu: ɛ ˈgɔ.vɑ.dɛd ˈwi:n/

  23. English: Until then
    Literal: When the time will come
    Sindarin: N'i lû tôl
    Pronunciation: ni LUUU TOOOL
    IPA Pronunciation: /ni ˈlu: ˈtɔ:l/

  24. English: Until tomorrow
    Literal: After today
    Sindarin: *Abarad
    Pronunciation: A.ba.rad
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.bɑ.rɑd/

  25. English: Do you speak Elvish?
    Literal: Do [familiar] you speak Elvish
    Sindarin: Pedig edhellen?
    Pronunciation: PE.dig e.DHEL.len
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈpɛ.dig ɛˈðɛʎ.lɛn/

  26. English: Do you speak Elvish?
    Literal: Do [reverential] you speak Elvish
    Sindarin: Pedil edhellen?
    Pronunciation: PE.dil e.DHEL.len
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈpɛ.diʎ ɛˈðɛʎ.lɛn/

  27. English: I don't speak Elvish
    Literal: I don't speak Elvish
    Sindarin: *Law bedin edhellen
    Pronunciation: LAW BE.din e.DHEL.len
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈlɑw ˈbɛ.din ɛˈðɛʎ.lɛn/

  28. English: I speak Elvish
    Literal: I speak Elvish
    Sindarin: Pedin edhellen
    Pronunciation: PE.din e.DHEL.len
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈpɛ.din ɛˈðɛʎ.lɛn/

  29. English: I don't know
    Sindarin: *Law iston
    Pronunciation: LAW IS.ton
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈlɑw ˈis.tɔn/

  30. English: I know
    Sindarin: Iston
    Pronunciation: IS.ton
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈis.tɔn/

  31. English: May we speak as friends now?
    Literal: you and I will speak now as friends?
    Sindarin: Pedathanc hi sui vellyn?
    Pronunciation: PE.da.thañk HI SUI VEL.lyn
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈpɛ.dɑ.θɑŋk ˈhi ˈsuj ˈvɛʎ.lyn/

  32. English: I am ___
    Literal: I am _[a name]_
    Sindarin: Im ___
    Pronunciation: IM ..
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈim ../

  33. English: I know your face
    Literal: I know [familiar] your face
    Sindarin: Iston i nîf gîn
    Pronunciation: IS.ton i NIIIV GIIIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈis.tɔn i ˈni:v ˈgi:n/

  34. English: I know your face
    Literal: I know [reverential] your face
    Sindarin: Iston i nîf lîn
    Pronunciation: IS.ton i NIIIV LIIIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈis.tɔn i ˈni:v ˈli:n/

  35. English: Don't be afraid
    Literal: [you] don't fear
    Sindarin: Av-'osto
    Pronunciation: a.VOS.to
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑˈvɔs.tɔ/

  36. English: Alas!
    Sindarin: Nae!
    Pronunciation: NAE
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈnɑɛ/

  37. English: Behold!
    Sindarin: Alae!
    Pronunciation: A.lae
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.lɑɛ/

  38. English: Beware!
    Literal: Be watchful!
    Sindarin: No dirweg!
    Pronunciation: no DIR.weg
    IPA Pronunciation: /nɔ ˈdir.wɛg/

  39. English: Eek!
    Sindarin: Ai!
    Pronunciation: AI
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑi/

  40. English: Flee!
    Literal: Flee
    Sindarin: Drego!
    Pronunciation: DRE.go
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈdrɛ.gɔ/

  41. English: Go away!
    Literal: Be gone
    Sindarin: Ego!
    Pronunciation: E.go
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɛ.gɔ/

  42. English: Run!
    Sindarin: Noro!
    Pronunciation: NO.ro
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈnɔ.rɔ/

  43. English: Stop!
    Literal: Halt
    Sindarin: Daro!
    Pronunciation: DA.ro
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈdɑ.rɔ/

  44. English: Wow!
    Sindarin: Elo!
    Pronunciation: E.lo
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɛ.lɔ/

  45. English: Wake up
    Literal: Awaken
    Sindarin: *Echuio
    Pronunciation: e.KHUI.o
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɛˈxuj.ɔ/

  46. English: Help!
    Literal: Help!
    Sindarin: Natho!
    Pronunciation: NA.tho
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈnɑ.θɔ/

  47. English: I'm here to save you
    Literal: I came to save [familiar] you
    Sindarin: Odúlen gi nathad
    Pronunciation: o.DUU.len gi NA.thad
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɔˈduˑ.lɛn gi ˈnɑ.θɑd/

  48. English: I'm here to save you
    Literal: I came to save [reverential] you
    Sindarin: Odúlen le nathad
    Pronunciation: o.DUU.len le NA.thad
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɔˈduˑ.lɛn lɛ ˈnɑ.θɑd/

  49. English: Release me
    Literal: Release me
    Sindarin: Leithio nin
    Pronunciation: LEI.thi.o NIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈlej.θi.ɔ ˈnin/

  50. English: Him or her needs healing
    Literal: It is necessary to heal him or her
    Sindarin: Boe de nestad
    Pronunciation: BOE de NES.tad
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈbɔɛ dɛ ˈnɛs.tɑd/ Calculus and vectors 12 pdf.

  51. English: Sorry
    Literal: Forgive me
    Sindarin: Goheno nin
    Pronunciation: GO.he.no NIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈgɔ.hɛ.nɔ ˈnin/

  52. English: Yes
    Literal: It is so
    Sindarin: *Naw
    Pronunciation: NAW
    IPA Pronunciation: /nɑw/

  53. English: Yes
    Literal: May it be so!/Make it so!
    Sindarin: No!
    Pronunciation: NO
    IPA Pronunciation: /nɔ/

  54. English: Yes
    Literal: Good!
    Sindarin: Ma!
    Pronunciation: MA
    IPA Pronunciation: /mɑ/

  55. English: No
    Literal: It isn't so
    Sindarin: *Law
    Pronunciation: LAW
    IPA Pronunciation: /lɑw/

  56. English: No
    Literal: It can't be so!
    Sindarin: Û!
    Pronunciation: UUU
    IPA Pronunciation: /u:/

  57. English: No
    Literal: Don't!
    Sindarin: Baw!
    Pronunciation: BAW
    IPA Pronunciation: /bɑw/

  58. English: Please
    Literal: For my joy
    Sindarin: Anin gell nîn
    Pronunciation: A.nin GELL NIIIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.nin ˈgɛʎl ˈni:n/

  59. English: I love you
    Literal: I love [familiar] you
    Sindarin: Gi melin
    Pronunciation: gi ME.lin
    IPA Pronunciation: /gi ˈmɛ.lin/

  60. English: I love you
    Literal: I love [reverential] you
    Sindarin: Le melin
    Pronunciation: le ME.lin
    IPA Pronunciation: /lɛ ˈmɛ.lin/

  61. English: I love to see your eyes shine when you laugh
    Literal: I delight when [familiar] your eyes shine when [familiar] you laugh
    Sindarin: *Gellon ned i gelir i chent gîn ned i lelig
    Pronunciation: GEL.lon NED i GE.lir i KHENT GIIIN NED i LE.lig
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈgɛʎ.lɔn ˈnɛd i ˈgɛ.lir i ˈxɛnt ˈgi:n ˈnɛd i ˈlɛ.lig/

  62. English: I love to see your eyes shine when you laugh
    Literal: I delight when [reverential] your eyes shine when [reverential] you laugh
    Sindarin: *Gellon ned i cenin i chent lîn ned i lelil
    Pronunciation: GEL.lon NED i CE.nin i KHENT LIIIN NED i LE.lil
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈgɛʎ.lɔn ˈnɛd i ˈkɛ.nin i ˈxɛnt ˈli:n ˈnɛd i ˈlɛ.liʎ/

  63. English: Thank you
    Literal: I give thanks to you [reverential]
    Sindarin: *Hannon allen
    Pronunciation: HAN.non AL.len
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈhɑn.nɔn ˌɑl.lɛn/

  64. English: Thank you
    Literal: You [reverential] are/were helpful/kind
    Sindarin: Le athae
    Pronunciation: LE A.thae
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈlɛ ˈɑ.θɑɛ/

  65. English: Thank you from my heart
    Literal: My soul sings with joy
    Sindarin: I faer nîn linna nan glass
    Pronunciation: i FAER NIIIN LIN.na nañ GLAS
    IPA Pronunciation: /i ˈfɑɛr ˈni:n ˈlin.nɑ nɑŋ ˈglɑs/

  66. English: You did well
    Literal: [familiar] you did well
    Sindarin: Agóreg vae
    Pronunciation: a.GOO.reg VAE
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑ.ˈgɔˑ.rɛg ˈvɑɛ/

  67. English: You did well
    Literal: [reverential] you did well
    Sindarin: Agórel vae
    Pronunciation: a.GOO.rel VAE
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑ.ˈgɔˑ.rɛʎ ˈvɑɛ/

  68. English: My Lady
    Literal: Beloved Lady
    Sindarin: Hiril vuin
    Pronunciation: HI.ril VUIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈhi.riʎ ˈvujn/

  69. English: My lord
    Literal: Beloved lord
    Sindarin: Hîr vuin
    Pronunciation: HIIIR VUIN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈhi:r ˈvujn/

  70. English: My child
    Literal: [diminutive] Child
    Sindarin: Henig
    Pronunciation: HE.nig
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈhɛ.nig/

  71. English: My son
    Literal: [diminutive] Son
    Sindarin: Ionneg
    Pronunciation: JON.neg
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈjɔn.nɛg/

  72. English: My daughter
    Literal: [diminutive] Daughter
    Sindarin: Iellig
    Pronunciation: JEL.lig
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈjɛʎ.lig/

  73. English: Daddy
    Sindarin: Ada
    Pronunciation: A.da
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.dɑ/

  74. English: Mommy
    Sindarin: Nana
    Pronunciation: NA.na
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈnɑ.nɑ/

  75. English: I won't
    Literal: I refuse
    Sindarin: Avon
    Pronunciation: A.von
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.vɔn/

  76. English: You betrayed me
    Literal: [familiar] you betrayed me
    Sindarin: Nin gwerianneg
    Pronunciation: NIÑ gwe.ri.AN.neg
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈniŋ gwɛ.riˈɑn.nɛg/

  77. English: You smell like a monster
    Literal: [familiar] you have the stench of a monster
    Sindarin: Sevig thû úan
    Pronunciation: SE.vig THUUU UU.an
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈsɛ.vig ˈθu: ˈuˑ.ɑn/

  78. English: Your head is empty
    Literal: [familiar] your head is empty
    Sindarin: I dhôl gîn lost
    Pronunciation: i DHOOOL GIIIN LOST
    IPA Pronunciation: /i ˈðɔ:l ˈgi:n ˈlɔst/

  79. English: Evil fate!
    Literal: Poor fate
    Sindarin: Amarth faeg!
    Pronunciation: A.marth FAEG
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.mɑrθ ˈfɑɛg/

  80. English: Curses!
    Sindarin: Rhaich!
    Pronunciation: RHAIKH
    IPA Pronunciation: /r̊ɑjx/

  81. English: Idiot!
    Literal: Lacking intelligence
    Sindarin: Pen-channas!
    Pronunciation: pen.KHAN.nas
    IPA Pronunciation: /pɛnˈxɑn.nɑs/

  82. English: Where are we?
    Literal: Where are [inclusive] we
    Sindarin: Mi van 'wen?
    Pronunciation: mi VAN WEN
    IPA Pronunciation: /mi ˈvɑn ˈwɛn/

  83. English: Do you promise?
    Literal: Do [familiar] you promise
    Sindarin: Gwestog?
    Pronunciation: GWES.tog
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈgwɛs.tɔg/

  84. English: Do you promise?
    Literal: Do [reverential] you promise
    Sindarin: Gwestol?
    Pronunciation: GWES.tol
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈgwɛs.tɔl/

  85. English: Is it done?
    Literal: Is the task done
    Sindarin: I dass carnen?
    Pronunciation: i DAS KAR.nen
    IPA Pronunciation: /i ˈdɑs ˈkɑr.nɛn/

  86. English: Is it necessary?
    Literal: Is it necessary
    Sindarin: Boe?
    Pronunciation: BOE
    IPA Pronunciation: /bɔɛ/

  87. English: Is there danger?
    Literal: Danger?
    Sindarin: *Rachas?
    Pronunciation: RA.khas
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈrɑ.xɑs/

  88. English: What are you doing?
    Literal: What are [familiar] you doing
    Sindarin: Man cerig?
    Pronunciation: MAN KE.rig
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈman ˈkɛ.rig/

  89. English: What are you doing?
    Literal: What are [reverential] you doing
    Sindarin: Man ceril?
    Pronunciation: MAN KE.ril
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈmɑn ˈkɛ.riʎ/

  90. English: What did you do?
    Literal: What did [familiar] you do
    Sindarin: Man agóreg?
    Pronunciation: MAN a.GOO.reg
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈmɑn ɑˈgɔˑ.rɛg/

  91. English: What did you do?
    Literal: What did [reverential] you do
    Sindarin: Man agórel?
    Pronunciation: MAN a.GOO.rel
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈmɑn ɑˈgɔˑ.rɛʎ/

  92. English: At when?/At where?
    Sindarin: Na van?
    Pronunciation: na VAN
    IPA Pronunciation: /na ˈvan/

  93. English: With what?
    Literal: What with
    Sindarin: A van?
    Pronunciation: a VAN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑ ˈvɑn/

  94. English: Which one?
    Literal: Which person
    Sindarin: Pen van?
    Pronunciation: PEN VAN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈpɛn ˈvɑn/

  95. English: Who is leading?
    Literal: Who leads
    Sindarin: Ma tôg?
    Pronunciation: MA TOOOG
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈmɑ ˈtɔ:g/

  96. English: Why not?
    Literal: Don't do it for what purpose
    Sindarin: Avo garo am man theled?
    Pronunciation: A.vo GA.ro am MAN THE.led
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɑ.vɔ ˈgɑ.rɔ ɑm ˈmɑn ˈθɛ.lɛd/

  97. English: Why?
    Sindarin: Am man?
    Pronunciation: am MAN
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑm ˈmɑn/

  98. English: Why?
    Literal: For what purpose
    Sindarin: Am man theled?
    Pronunciation: am MAN THE.led
    IPA Pronunciation: /ɑm ˈmɑn ˈθɛ.lɛd/

  99. English: He or she had too many cups of drink
    Literal: He or she drank countless cups of drink
    Sindarin: Uhunc ylf ú-nedui
    Pronunciation: U.huñk YLV UU.ne.dui
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈu.huŋk ˈylv ˈuˑ.nɛ.duj/

  100. English: Go kiss an orc
    Literal: Be gone, kiss an orc
    Sindarin: Ego, *mibo orch
    Pronunciation: E.go MI.bo ORKH
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈɛ.gɔ ˈmi.bɔ ˈɔrx/

  101. English: I can say what I wish, and you can't understand me
    Literal: I say the words that I want, and [familiar] you can't understand me
    Sindarin: Pedin i phith in aníron, a nin ú-cheniog
    Pronunciation: PE.din i FITH in a.NII.ron a NIN uu.KHE.ni.og
    IPA Pronunciation: /ˈpɛ.din i ˈfiθ in ɑˈniˑ.rɔn ɑ ˈnin uˑˈxɛ.ni.ɔg/

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs generally answer one of four questions: how, when, where, or to what extent.

He walked slowly. (how)
He answered immediately. (when)
He ran away. (where)
He became very happy. (to what extent, modifies adjective)

Sindarin has many words that stand by themselves as adverbs, such as: io (ago), lim (on), mae (well), etc. Two words even act as both adjective and adverb: far (enough) and him (steadfast/continually, enduring).
There is also a group of prefixes (most mentioned in the lenition lesson) that are “adverbial” …. such as palan- (far and wide), athra- (across), am- (up), etc. They can make other words, such as nouns and adjectives, adverbs.

What can we do if we need an adverb not covered by attested material? Tolkien has shown us in his attested material that “forming adverbs” can be an easy thing to do. For the adverb “long” (as in … live “long/for a long time”), Tolkien used a preposition and an adjective combined….

an (for) + and (long) = anann (for long)
This construction is used in the praise for the hobbits: Cuio i Pheriain anann! (May the Haflings live long!)
*The final d of “and” is changed to n in a combination like this. This occurence will be discussed in the lesson on compounds.

For the adverbial phrase “to remote distance”, Tolkien uses a preposition and a noun combined.
na (to) + haered (remote distance) = na-chaered (to remote distance). In English, this phrase could probably be represented by the word “away”.
This construction is used in the phrase: Na-chaered palan-díriel (after having gazed afar to remote distance)
*In this combination, “haered” is lenited after combining with “na-“.

Mae Govannen Translation

With these two examples, along with “na vedui!” (at last!), which keeps separate word forms, but ultimately means “finally!”, we can construct our own adverbs where needed. For instance, let’s take the adverbs “quickly” and “lovingly”. There are no Sindarin words meaning “quickly” or “lovingly”, but we can easily construct adverb compounds, using the preposition “na” (with) and the noun/gerund “horthad” (speed) and noun “meleth” (love) .

na (with) + horthad (speed) = na-chorthad (quickly)
If you do something “with speed”, you are doing it “quickly”.

na (with) + meleth (love) = na-veleth (lovingly)
If you do something “with love”, you are doing it “lovingly”.

Placement of Adverbs
In a sentence, when not attached to the verb, the adveb can come before or after the verb.
Ar e aníra ennas suilannad mhellyn în phain
Mae govannen!

Mae Govannen Mellon Nin

Lenition of Adverbs
The adverb “si” (now) is lenited in “Edro hi ammen”, but the reason for this is not known. Since all other adverbs in attested material are NOT lenited, it is probably best to follow the usual pattern and not lenit adverbs when you write in Sindarin.

Mae Govannen Meaning

NOTE: The question of the Sindarin word for “near” is brought up very often in the forum. This word is easily substituted with the word “by” …. “na” in Sindarin.
The river babbles near (by) me.
I hîr glavra na nin.