The Dead Sea Scrolls are universally proclaimed as the greatest archaeological find of the 20th century. The first scrolls were discovered quite by accident by a young Bedouin shepherd in the Qumran area near the Dead Sea in 1947. When tossing a rock into an open cave in the cliffs just above the Dead Sea, he heard the sound of a breaking pot. Bible verses about Dead Sea Scrolls. Genesis 1:1-31 ESV / 3 helpful votes Helpful Not Helpful. In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep.
Roman Catholic and Orthodox Faith Examined and
'The Jewish canon, or the Hebrew Bible, was universally received, while the Apocrypha added to the Greek version of the Septuagint were only in a general way accounted as books suitable for church reading, and thus as a middle class between canonical and strictly apocryphal (pseudonymous) writings. And justly; for those books, while they have great historical value, and fill the gap between the Old Testament and the New, all originated after the cessation of prophecy, and they cannot therefore be regarded as inspired, nor are they ever cited by Christ or the apostles' (Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, book 3, chapter 9)
21 reasons why the Apocrypha is not inspired:
- The Roman Catholic Church did not officially canonize the Apocrypha until the Council of Trent (1546 AD). This was in part because the Apocrypha contained material which supported certain Catholic doctrines, such as purgatory, praying for the dead, and the treasury of merit.
- Not one of them is in the Hebrew language, which was alone used by the inspired historians and poets of the Old Testament.
- Not one of the writers lays any claim to inspiration.
- These books were never acknowledged as sacred Scriptures by the Jewish Church, and therefore were never sanctioned by our Lord.
- They were not allowed a place among the sacred books, during the first four centuries of the Christian Church.
- They contain fabulous statements, and statements which contradict not only the canonical Scriptures, but themselves; as when, in the two Books of Maccabees, Antiochus Epiphanes is made to die three different deaths in as many different places.
- The Apocrypha inculcates doctrines at variance with the Bible, such as prayers for the dead and sinless perfection.
- The apocrypha contains offensive materials unbecoming of God's authorship.
- It teaches immoral practices, such as lying, suicide, assassination and magical incantation.
- The apocryphal books themselves make reference to what we call the Silent 400 years, where there was no prophets of God to write inspired materials.
- Josephus rejected the apocryphal books as inspired and this reflected Jewish thought at the time of Jesus
- The Manual of Discipline in the Dead Sea Scrolls rejected the apocrypha as inspired.
- The Council of Jamnia held the same view rejected the apocrypha as inspired.
- Although it was occasionally quoted in early church writings, it was nowhere accepted in a canon. Melito (AD 170) and Origen rejected the Apocrypha, (Eccl. Hist. VI. 25, Eusebius) as does the Muratorian Canon.
- Jerome vigorously resisted including the Apocrypha in his Latin Vulgate Version (400 AD), but was overruled. As a result, the standard Roman Catholic Bible throughout the medieval period contained it. Thus, it gradually came to be revered by the average clergyman. Still, many medieval Catholic scholars realized that it was not inspired.
- The terms 'protocanonical' and 'deuterocanonical' are used by Catholics to signify respectively those books of Scripture that were received by the entire Church from the beginning as inspired, and those whose inspiration came to be recognized later, after the matter had been disputed by certain Fathers and local churches.
- Pope Damasus (366-384) authorized Jerome to translate the Latin Vulgate. The Council of Carthage declared this translation as 'the infallible and authentic Bible.' Jerome was the first to describe the extra 7 Old Testament books as the 'Apocrypha' (doubtful authenticity). Needless to say, Jerome's Latin Vulgate did not include the Apocrypha.
- Cyril (born about A.D. 315) - 'Read the divine Scriptures - namely, the 22 books of the Old Testament which the 72 interpreters translated' (the Septuagint)
- The apocrypha wasn't included at first in the Septuagint, but was appended by the Alexandrian Jews, and was not listed in any of the catalogues of the inspired books till the 4th century
- Hilary (bishop of Poictiers, 350 A.D.) rejected the apocrypha (Prologue to the Psalms, Sec. 15)
- Epiphanius (the great opposer of heresy, 360 A.D.) rejected them all. Referring to Wisdom of Solomon & book of Jesus Sirach, he said 'These indeed are useful books & profitable, but they are not placed in the number of the canonical.'
And the day following Judas came with his company, to take away the bodies of them that were slain, and to bury them with their kinsmen, in the sepulchers of their fathers. And they found under the coats of the slain some of the donaries of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbiddeth to the Jews: so that all plainly saw, that for this cause they were slain. Then they all blessed the just judgment of the Lord, who had discovered the things that were hidden. And so betaking themselves to prayers, they besought him, that the sin which had been committed might be forgotten. But the most valiant Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves from sin, forasmuch as they saw before their eyes what had happened, because of the sins of those that were slain. And making a gathering, he sent twelve thousand drachmas of silver to Jerusalem for sacrifice to be offered for the sins of the dead, thinking well and religiously concerning the resurrection, (For if he had not hoped that they that were slain should rise again, it would have seemed superfluous and vain to pray for the dead,) And because he considered that they who had fallen asleep with godliness, had great grace laid up for them. It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins. (2 Maccabees 12:39-46)
Ecclesiasticus 25:19 Any iniquity is insignificant compared to a wife's iniquity.
Ecclesiasticus 25:24 From a woman sin had its beginning. Because of her we all die.
Ecclesiasticus 22:3 It is a disgrace to be the father of an undisciplined, and the birth of a daughter is a loss.
And they laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient place, till there should come a prophet, and give answer concerning them. (1 Maccabees 4:46)
And there was a great tribulation in Israel, such as was not since the day, that there was no prophet seen in Israel. (1 Maccabees 9:27)
And that the Jews, and their priests, had consented that he should be their prince, and high priest for ever, till there should arise a faithful prophet. (1 Maccabees 14:41)
'From Artexerxes to our own time the complete history has been written but has not been deemed worthy of equal credit with the earlier records because of the failure of the exact succession of the prophets.' .. 'We have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine..'(Flavius Josephus, Against Apion 1:8)
They debated the canonicity of a few books (e.g., Ecclesiastes), but they changed nothing and never proclaimed themselves to be authoritative determiners of the Old Testament canon. 'The books which they decided to acknowledge as canonical were already generally accepted, although questions had been raised about them. Those which they refused to admit had never been included. They did not expel from the canon any book which had previously been admitted. 'The Council of Jamnia was the confirming of public opinion, not the forming of it.' (F. F. Bruce, The Books and Parchments [Old Tappan, NJ.: Fleming H. Revell, 1963], p. 98])
Is the Apocrypha Inspired? Does it really belong in the Bible?
Let us consider while we are at this point, the subject of the Catholic apocrypha, for which they make such great claims; and because of which they deny the Bible in common use by most brethren. 2 Macc 12:38-46 seems to be the principal reason they cling to the apocrypha. There is no other doctrine that depends so heavily upon support in the apocrypha. If I were not afraid of absolute statements, I would say that their defense of the apocrypha is only because of the passage and their claims about its teachings.
The Catholics have 46 Old Testament books rather than the 39 found in our Bibles. However, they have added much more material to other books which does not appear under separate titles. That material follows: The Rest of Esther added to Esther; The Song of the Three Holy Children, The History of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon added to Daniel; Baruch; 1 and 2 Maccabees; Tobias; Judith; Ecclesiasticus; and the Wisdom of Sirach.
The only powerful support for these books is that they appear in the Septuagint version. However, in many of our Bibles there is much material that is uninspired, including history, poetry, maps, dictionaries, and other information. This may be the reason for the appearance of this material in the Septuagint. The apocrypha was not in the Hebrew canon.
There are reputed to be 263 quotations and 370 allusions to the Old Testament in the New Testament and not one of them refers to the Apocryphal
The usual division of the Old Testament by the Jews was a total of 24 books: The Books of Moses (51, The Early prophets 14; Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings ~, The Late Prophets (4; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the 12 Minor Prophets), and the Hagiagrapha (11; Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon. Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles i. These 24 books contain all the material in our numbering of 39.
Josephus spoke concerning the canon, but his book division combined Ruth-Judges and Lamentation-Jeremiah for a total of 22 books rather than 24:
'For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, .. only 22 books. which contain the records of ail the past times; which are justly believed to be divine;..It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers;..and how firmly we have given credit to these books of our own nation is evident by what we do; for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add anything to them, or to make any change in them.' (Flavius Josephus Against Apion Book 1, Section 8).
Plainly Josephus distinguishes between those books written before and after Artaxerxes. This eliminates most of the apocrypha, especially the Maccabees.
The apocrypha itself denies all notion of inspiration. Referring to the events in the Maccabees the author makes these statements:
'..all such things as have been comprised in 5 books by Jason of Cyrene, we have at-tempted to abridge in one book. For considering the difficulty that they find that desire to undertake the narrations of histories, because of the multitude of the matter, we have taken care for those indeed that are willing to read,..And as to ourselves indeed, in undertaking this work of abridging, we have taken in hand no easy task, yea. rather a business full of watching and sweat. . Leaving to the authors the exact handling of every particular, and as for ourselves. according to the plan proposed, studying to brief.. For to collect all that is known, to put the discourse in order, and curiously to discuss every particular point, is the duty of the author of a history. But to pursue brevity of speech and to avoid nice declarations of things, is to be granted to him that maketh an abridgement.' (2 Maccabees 2: 24-32).
'..I will also here make an end of my narration. Which if I have done well, and as it becometh the history, it is what I desired; but if not so perfectly, it must be pardoned me. For as it is hurtful to drink always wine, or always water, but pleasant to use sometimes the one, and sometimes the other, so if the speech be always nicely framed, it will not be grateful to the readers..' 12 Maccabees 15: 39-40).
This forms a bizarre contrast with passages in the New Testament:
'Take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not ye that speak. but the spirit of your Father which speaketh in you' (Matthew 10: 19-20).
'Now we have received. not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God: that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. Which things also we speak, not in words which man s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth' (1 Corinthians 2: 12-131.
This is refuted because:
Early Christians quote from the apocrypha proves it belongs in the Bible
Early Christians quoted from all kinds of uninspired writings other than the apocrypha. Why do Catholics not include these in their Bible's
They were included in the Septuagint.
The Jews Never accepted the apocrypha as part of the Old testament canon.
The Church Councils at Hippo (393) and Carthage (397, 419), listed the apocrypha as Scripture. Since these same councils also finalized the 66 canonical books which all Christians accept, they must accept them all.
False. The canon of the New Testament was set from the first century. It is Catholic myth that Catholics gave the world the Bible!
The New Testament never quotes from the any of the apocryphal books written between 400 - 200 BC. What is significant here is that NONE of the books within the 'apocryphal collection' are every quoted. So the Catholic argument that 'the apocryphal books cannot be rejected as uninspired on the basis that they are never quoted from in the New Testament because Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon are also never quoted in the New Testament, and we all accept them as inspired.' The rebuttal to this Catholic argument is that 'Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther' were always included in the 'history collection' of Jewish books and 'Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon' were always included in the 'poetry collection'. By quoting one book from the collection, it verifies the entire collection. None of the apocryphal books were ever quoted in the New Testament. Not even once! This proves the Catholic and Orthodox apologists wrong when they try to defend the apocrypha in the Bible.
The apocrypha does not belong in the Bible because It IS not inspired.
The majority of the Dead Sea Scrolls are religious works, divided on thiswebsite into 'Biblical' and 'Non-Biblical' compositions, with a specialcategory for 'Tefillin and Mezuzot'. The non-literary records in the corpus(mostly papyrus manuscripts from sites other than the Qumran caves) are groupedinto 'Documents' and 'Letters', and a small number of 'Scribal Exercises'. The'Unidentified Texts' are tiny fragments in such poor condition that they cannotbe categorized. There are also 'Multiple Compositions'. In most cases, amanuscript label refers to a single text. However, sometimes a single label wasassigned to more then one composition. In some cases, this is due to the re-useof a scroll in antiquity-- when writing was superimposed over existing text (apalimpsest) or there are separate texts written on the two sides of a scroll(recto and verso). Other cases of 'multiple compositions' with a single labelmanuscript number reflect modern errors and disagreements about classifyingfragments.
Occasionally, scholars mistakenly thought that different fragments came fromthe same manuscript and grouped them together. Sometimes the fragments are thesame composition, e.g., the book of Leviticus, but originate from differentcopies. In such cases, the texts are given an extra letter to distinguish them,such as 4Q26, 4Q26a, 4Q26b, 4Q26c, which represent different copies ofLeviticus that were placed together. Mac tools et9040 manual.
The literary compositions among the Dead Sea Scrolls are conventionallycategorized according to their content or genre. Scholars differ in theiropinions about specific categories and labels, and the terms used here aredesigned to help the user navigate this unique site rather than to contributeto the on-going and complicated scholarly debates. One text can have more thanone label describing it.
Dead Sea Scrolls Verses
Scripture (מקרא) – These manuscripts contain material now consideredto be part of the Hebrew Bible. Every book is represented among the Dead SeaScrolls, except the book of Esther. These are the oldest known copies ofbiblical works.
Translation of Scripture (תרגום מקרא) – These are translations ofscriptural texts into Aramaic and Greek.
tefillin and mezuzot
Tefillin ('phylacteries') and Mezuzot are ritual objects, small slips of parchment containing excerpts of biblical texts in keeping with
6And these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart…8 you shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.. 9And thou shall write them upon the door-posts of your house, and upon your gates.
Tefillin (תפילין) - These parchment slips, folded and placed incapsules, are understood to be the 'frontlets between your eyes.' About twodozen tefillin slips were recovered from the Qumran caves, and additionaltefillin were found at Wadi Murabba'at, Nahal Hever, and Nahal Se’elim.They are identified by the biblical passages they contain, and some specialscribal features such as tiny script. The texts are the same as those requiredby later rabbinic halakha that has been passed down to modern Jewish practice,but some contain additional biblical passages. Since the Qumran tefillin arethe only examples we have from the Second Temple period, we cannot know whethertheir distinctive features reflect the traditions of a specific community orwhether they represent a more widespread tradition.
Mezuzot (מזוזה) - These are placed on doorposts of houses. Eightmezuzot were found in the Qumran caves, and one was discovered at WadiMurabba'at. The biblical passages on the mezuzot often include the same textsthat appear on doorposts of Jewish homes today.
Non-biblical compositions refer to texts that are not considered part of themodern Hebrew Bible. Some may have been considered sacred by their contemporarywriters and readers.
Apocrypha (אפוקריפה) – The term 'Apocrypha' is used here to refer tothe specific collection of books considered to be canonical in the Catholic andEastern Orthodox traditions, but not part of the Hebrew Bible or Protestantcanon. Three works of the Apocrypha are found among the Dead Sea Scrolls: BenSira (also known as the Wisdom of Ben Sira, Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus), thebook of Tobit, and the Epistle of Jeremiah.
Calendrical Texts (חיבורים קלנדריים) – 'Calendrical texts' found inthe Qumran caves rely mainly on solar rather than lunar calculations. Thecalendars are useful sources of information about festivals and priestlycourses (mishmarot). The cryptic script (a type of unusual Hebrew writing) ofsome of the calendars may imply that the information was secret and esoteric.These manuscripts are especially valued for their orderly and systematic listsof days and months, enabling scholars to recreate missing pieces of thecalendar. The most prominent calendar consists of 364 days divided into 4seasons of 13 weeks each.
Exegetical Texts (חיבורים פרשניים) – The term 'Exegetical texts' usedhere refers to texts that analyze and interpret biblical works through explicitreference. The most well-known of these texts are the pesharim; others includea 'halakhic midrash' and commentaries on Genesis.
Pesher (פשר) – This type of exegetical literature applies biblicalprophecy to the history and experience of the sectarian community known as theYahad, with a special focus upon the End of Days. These commentaries are easilyrecognized by the use of the word pesher in the written formulas that link thecitation of the biblical text to its interpretation.
Historical Texts (חיבורים היסטוריים) – Historical texts relate tohistorical events; some of these works feature moral and theologicalinterpretations of the events. These fragments mention historical people suchas Queen Salome and Greek kings, and many of the events described are set inthe midst of war and rebellion.
Legal Texts (חיבורים הלכתיים) – Legal texts (also referred to ashalakha, a term used in later rabbinic texts), deal with matters of religiouslaw. Biblical legal texts cover a broad range of subjects including: civilmatters; ritual requirements such as festivals, Temple service and physicalpurity; ethical behaviors; and more. Many Qumran texts interpret and expandupon biblical laws. 'Rules' texts like the Community Rule, or portions of theDamascus Document, deal specifically with sectarian rules and regulations. Somelegal texts, most notably Miqsat Ma'aseh haTorah (MMT, also known as theHalakhic Letter), reflect polemics with opposing groups.
Parabiblical Texts (חיבורים על המקרא) – The term 'Parabiblical texts'is used here to refer to texts that relate to scriptural works by re-telling,expanding upon, or embellishing biblical stories or legal texts. Examples arethe Genesis Apocryphon, Enoch, and the Temple Scroll. Some books categorized asparabiblical, e.g., Jubilees or the Aramaic Levi Document, may have been givenscriptural status by certain groups in ancient times.
Poetical/Liturgical Texts (חיבורים שיריים וליטורגיים) – Most of thepoems and hymns among the Dead Sea Scrolls are closely related to biblicalpoetry. Many also incorporate themes and expressions from later periods, mostnotably sectarian hymns such as the Hodayot. Some texts would have been usedfor personal study or reflection, while others were intended for more formalliturgical use, such as Daily Prayers and Festival Prayers, and the Songs ofthe Sabbath Sacrifice.
Dead Sea Scrollsrejected Scriptures Worship
Sapiential Texts (חיבורים חכמתיים) – Among the Dead Sea Scrolls areworks that continue the sapiential, or wisdom traditions, found in the biblicalbooks of Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes and some Psalms, and in the Apocryphalworks of Ben Sira and the Wisdom of Solomon. These works offer practical adviceabout daily life, alongside intellectual inquiry about the world and humanity.Qumran Scrolls wisdom texts, such as Instruction and Mysteries, combine thepractical and intellectual themes with apocalyptic concerns, and occasionallyrelate to legal matters as well.
Sectarian Texts (חיבורים כיתתיים) – The 'Sectarian texts' use uniqueterminology to describe the special theology, worldview, and history of aparticular group, which called itself the Yahad ('Community'). The core textsoutline the rules and regulations of the Yahad and emphasize the End of Days,which the Community viewed as imminent. Scholars used to attribute all of theQumran Scrolls to the Essenes, one of the three major Jewish sects in theSecond Temple period. Most now agree that the corpus represents the writings ofrelated, evolving communities rather than a single sect. Even the texts labeledas sectarian were likely to have been composed by multiple groups, within andoutside of the Community. Three of the original seven scrolls found in Cave 1near Qumran were instrumental in identifying sectarian texts and remain some ofthe most well-known manuscripts: the Community Rule (Serekh HaYahad), theScroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, and theHabakkuk Commentary (Pesher Habakkuk).
Documents and Letters
Bar Kokhba Letters (איגרות בר כוכבא) – Fifteen military letters werefound stored in a leather waterskin in Cave 5/6 of Nahal Hever, known as the Cave of theLetters. All of the letters in this bundle were written by men who wereinvolved with the administration of Shim‘on b. Kosiba, the leader of the BarKokhba Revolt, and most were written in Shim‘on’s name.
Archive of Babatha (ארכיון בבתא) – The personal archive of Babatha,apparently a refugee during the Bar Kokhba Revolt, was found in Cave 5/6 ofNahal Hever, known as the Cave of theLetters. These thirty-five financial documents, including marriagecontracts, land deeds, and bills of sale, had been wrapped in a package storedinside a leather purse and placed in a concealed crevice inside the cave,presumably for safekeeping for future retrieval. Most of the Babatha documentsare well preserved and feature explicit dates, ranging from 94-132 ce. The archive includes documents written in Aramaic, Nabatean and Greek
Dead Sea Scrollsrejected Scriptures God
Archive of Eleazar ben Shmuel (ארכיון אלעזר בן שמואל) – In additionto the Bar Kokhba and Babatha archives, the Cave of theLetters also yielded another small collection of documents. Five contractsbelonging to Eleazar the son of Shmuel, a farmer from Ein Gedi, were foundinside a leather purse concealed in a crevice alongside the Babatha archive. Anadditional papyrus document belonging to Eleazar was found hidden inside areed.
Dead Sea Scrolls And Bible
Alleged Qumran Documents (תעודות לכאורה ממערות קומראן) – Some of thedocuments sold by Bedouin to the Rockefeller Museum were attributed to Qumrancaves but may actually have been found elsewhere. In at least one of thesecases, a Qumran Cave origin does in fact seem likely. One fragment is anaccount in Greek that was probably written on the back of a Qumran Scroll.