8/23/2021

California Driver History Report Abbreviations For Words

Wasei-eigo (和製英語, meaning 'Japanese-made English' or 'English words coined in Japan') are Japanese-language expressions based on English words, or parts of word combinations, that do not exist in standard English or whose meanings differ from the words from which they were derived. Linguistics classifies them as pseudo-loanwords or pseudo-anglicisms.

Wasei-eigo words, compound words and portmanteaus are constructed by Japanese speakers on the basis of loanwords derived from English and embedded into the Japanese lexicon with refashioned, novel meanings diverging significantly from the originals.[1]:124 An example is handorukīpā (ハンドルキーパー, 'handle-keeper'), derived from 'handle' with the meaning of 'steering wheel', with the full phrase meaning designated driver.[2] Some wasei-eigo terms are not recognizable as English words in English-speaking countries; one example is sukinshippu (スキンシップ, 'skinship'), which refers to physical contact between close friends or loved ones and appears to be a portmanteau of skin and kinship.[3]:156–157 In other cases, a word may simply have gained a slightly different meaning; for instance, kanningu (カンニング) does not mean 'cunning,' but 'cheating' (on a test). Some wasei-eigo are subsequently borrowed from Japanese into other languages, including English itself.

Confusion with gairaigo[edit]

40-5-125 false report/application for driver licens d02 major 40-5-142.22e violation involving fatal accident u31 serious. 40-5-143 possess multiple driver licenses x d07 40-5-146.b2 violating out of service order x b27 oosov. 40-5-146a1 driving cmv without cdl x b51 serious. The manual also lists all ACD codes with corresponding descriptions and abbreviations, as approved by AAMVA and implemented by each State Driver Licensing Agency (SDLA) in the jurisdictions. ACD Release 5.2.3 (Effective ) AAMVA Code Dictionary Manual, Release 5.2.3; ACD018. Unlike abbreviations, they aren't shorter spellings of words—they're made up of the words' initials. Using abbreviations. Abbreviations are usually formed using the most recognizable letters from the word or expression. This makes them easier to remember, and easy for others to read. Conducts first-level staff training as appropriate, ensures compliance with safety regulations included in the Injury and Illness Prevention Program; corrects and reports safety concerns to supervisor, departmental safety coordinator or their designated safety resource professional. Failure to Report Accident Comm. Failure to Report Accident – Operator Comm. Failure to Stop after Accident (Attended Veh) 0 0 0 6 6-m: 275 279 261 083: DCI DCO DDH DED: Damage Judgment Default on Court-Ordered Installment Agreement DJN default on non0individual CIAG Driving on Divided Highway in such a space or barrier except through an.

Wasei-eigo is often confused with gairaigo, which refers simply to loanwords or 'words from abroad'. Some of the main contributors to this confusion are the phonological and morphological transformations that they undergo to suit Japanese phonology and syllabary.[citation needed] These transformations often result in truncated (or 'backclipped') words and words with extra vowels inserted to accommodate the Japanese mora syllabic structure.[4]:70Wasei-eigo, on the other hand, is the re-working of and experimentation with these words that result in an entirely novel meaning as compared to the original intended meaning.[1]:123–139

Compared to other Japanese word classes[edit]

Wasei-eigo is distinct from Engrish, the misuse or corruption of the English language by native Japanese speakers, as it consists of words used in Japanese conversation, not an attempt at speaking English.[5] These include acronyms and initialisms particular to Japan (see list of Japanese Latin alphabetic abbreviations). Wasei-eigo can be compared to wasei-kango (和製漢語, Japanese-created kango (Chinese compounds)), which are Japanese pseudo-Sinicisms (Japanese words created from Chinese roots) and are also extremely common.

History and process[edit]

There was a large influx of English loanwords introduced to Japan during the Meiji period, which was an important factor in Japan's modernization.[6] Because they were so quickly accepted into Japanese society there was not a thorough understanding of the actual meaning of the word, leading to misinterpretations and deviations from their original meaning.

Since English loanwords are adopted into Japan intentionally (as opposed to diffusing 'naturally' through language contact, etc.), the meaning often deviates from the original. When these loanwords become so deeply embedded in the Japanese lexicon, it leads to experimentation and re-fashioning of the words' meaning, thus resulting in wasei-eigo.[1]:127

In the media[edit]

Many scholars agree that the main proponent behind these wasei-eigo terms is the media, in order to create interest and novelty in their advertising and products.[1]:133 The use of English words is also an attempt by advertisers to portray a modern, cosmopolitan image – one that is often associated with Western culture.[7]:48

Social connotations and main users[edit]

Though there is disagreement about the assumption that the majority of wasei-eigo are created by advertisers, the audience that predominantly uses wasei-eigo is youth and women.[1]:123–139 Many Japanese consider English loanword usage to be more casual and as being used mainly among peers of the same status.[7]:49 In addition, many wasei-eigo words are used to camouflage risque terms and ideas, such as the famous rabbuho (love hotel), or the many massaji (massage) and sabisu (service) associated with taboo topics. Finally, wasei-eigo may be used to express a poetic and emphatic need of the speaker, resulting in a new term.[1]

English loanwords are usually written in katakana, making it apparent that they are words non-native to Japan.[4]:73 This constant reminder that these are loanwords, and not natively Japanese, links the meanings of the words with the idea of 'foreignness'. Because of this, wasei-eigo (and some English loanwords) is often used as a method for speaking about taboo and controversial topics in a safe and neutral way.[7]:52 Further, being non-native Japanese words and marked as foreign in their writing, they can be associated with concepts and subjects that are non-normal, or uncommon in Japan.[7]:57

Wasei-eigo has resulted in some inadvertent unfortunate results, such as the adoption in 2013 by Fukushima Industries of Fukuppy as the name of their corporate logo.[8][9][10][11]

See also[edit]

  • Konglish – the same phenomenon in Korean language
  • Bonin English, sometimes considered an Anglo-Japanese mixed language

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefMiller, L. (1998). Wasei eigo: English “loanwords” coined in Japan. The life of language: Papers in linguistics in honor of William Bright.
  2. ^Ellen Freeman. '12 'Made-in-Japan' English Terms that Might Confuse English Speakers'. Mental Floss. Archived from the original on 2019-05-28. Retrieved 2019-09-19.
  3. ^Miura, Akira (1998). English in Japanese: a selection of useful loanwords.
  4. ^ abKAY, G. (1995), English loanwords in Japanese. World Englishes, 14. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.1995.tb00340.x
  5. ^Nagae, Akira (October 28, 2005). 恥ずかしい和製英語 [著]スティーブン・ウォルシュ [Embarrassing Japanese-English Words [Author] Stephen Walsh] (book review) (in Japanese). Weekly Asahi. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  6. ^MacGregor, Laura (2003). The language of shop signs in Tokyo. English Today, null, pp 18 doi:10.1017/S0266078403001020
  7. ^ abcdHogan, J. (2003). The social significance of English usage in Japan. Japanese studies, 23(1).
  8. ^'Eggsactly the right name'. Stuff. New Zealand. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  9. ^Agence France Presse (1 April 2016). 'Japan's Kinki University ditches saucy name'. Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  10. ^'Fukushima's Fukuppy Lesson'. FleishmanHillard. No. 12. August 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  11. ^McCurry, Justin (18 November 2020). ''Hello work' or job centre? language experts spell trouble for Japan's mangled English'. The Guardian. Retrieved 22 November 2020.

Further reading[edit]

  • Miller, Laura (1997). 'Wasei eigo: English 'loanwords' Coined in Japan'. In Hill, Jane H.; Mistry, P.J.; Campbell, Lyle (eds.). The Life of Language: Papers in Linguistics in Honor of William Bright. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs. 108. Berlin: Mouton / De Gruyter. pp. 123–139. ISBN3-11-015633-4. at Google Books
  • Masuda, Koh, ed. (1991). Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (4th ed.). Tokyo: Kenkyusha Limited. ISBN4-7674-2015-6.
  • Gakken (2003). 用例でわかるカタカナ新語辞典 [Katakana Shingo-jiten (Katakana by Example New Word Dictionary)] (in Japanese). ISBN4-05-301351-8.
  • Miura, Akira (1998). English in Japanese : a selection of useful loanwords (1. Weatherhill ed.). New York [u.a.]: Weatherhill. ISBN0834804212.

External links[edit]

For a list of words relating to Wasei-eigo, see the Wasei eigo category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wasei-eigo&oldid=995094983'
California Driver History Report Abbreviations For Words

By Nick Wright

Someone once defined a sales fax as a ‘high-ranking digital envoy.’

Jargon is the language of specialized terms used by a group or profession. It’s common shorthand among experts and used sensibly can be a quick and efficient way of communicating. Most jargon consists of unfamiliar terms, abstract words, non-existent words and acronyms and abbreviations, with an occasional euphemism thrown in for good measure. Every profession, trade and organization has its own specialized terms.

Examples

Economists

cost-push inflation, marginal-cost pricing, J-curve

Picasais probably one of the most polished image viewers for Mac OS. Sure, Google Killed off Picasa recently, but the photo viewer app is still polished enough for most people. The Picasa Photo Viewer is fast, stable and still looks and performs as good as most other photo viewers for Mac. Best Photo Viewer and Management Apps for Mac 1 Photos. Photos is the in-built app for macOS that will let you do almost everything you are thinking of. 2 Adobe Bridge CC. Adobe Bridge CC is yet another awesome application that you can use to manage your photos without. App for viewing and rating photos in mac. Best photo viewers in 2021 for Mac and Windows in 2021. Full list of the best image viewer apps and software for fast photo viewing. Download Phiewer - Image Viewer for macOS 10.11.0 or later and enjoy it on your Mac. ‎Phiewer - The standard media viewer for Mac. Phiewer is the easiest and fastest way to view your images, videos and even audio files.

Computing

ASCII, RAM, disk drive, intranets

Insurance

annuitants, arbitrate, debentures, gilts, sum assured

Photography

ASA rating, f-stop, teleconverter, TTL metering

Good communication or bad communication?

Jargon is a strange creature. We all complain about jargon, yet everyone writes it and no one ever admits using it. The reason? Jargon can be the worst form of communication—and the best.

Find

A minicab driver picks up the radio and calls base.

Cabbie: B52Base: C5Cabbie: OKPassenger: Excuse me, could you explain what that was all about?Cabbie: I just wanted to know where to pick up my next fare.

At the Office of National Statistics

Statistician: Each Geographical Statistical Output (GSO)depicts an enumeration district.

Manager: Do you mean ‘each map’?

Statistician: No. We cannot call it a map because each GSO also contains a table.

Manager: OK. It’s a map with a table.

History

Examples of jargon

Human resources departments never sack or fire anyone. For example, an American company called firing staff: “a refocusing of the company’s skills-set”. Here are other examples of human resources-speak.

  • career alternative enhancement program
  • career-change opportunity
  • dehiring staff
  • derecruiting resources
  • downsizing employment
  • employee reduction activities
  • implementing a skills mix adjustment
  • negative employee retention
  • optimizing outplacement potential
  • rectification of a workforce imbalance
  • redundancy elimination
  • right-sizing employment
  • selecting out manpower
  • strategic downsizing
  • vocation relocation policy

If the human resources department uses one of these phrases to fire you, take heart, you’re not unemployed. You’re simply “in an orderly transition between career changes while undergoing a period of non-waged involuntary leisure during your temporary outplacement.”

The military

JargonPlain
arbitrarily deprive of lifekill people
render non-viablekill people
terminate with extreme prejudicekill people
armed reconnaissancebombing enemy troops
servicing the targetbombing enemy troops
terrain alterationbombing enemy troops
accidental delivery of ordnancebombing your own troops
friendly firebombing your own troops
incontinent ordnancebombing your own troops

Politicians

JargonPlain
meaningful statistical downturnrecession
period of economic adjustmentrecession
negative economic growthrecession
interruption of economic expansionrecession

Bureaucracy

JargonPlain
the involuntary undomiciledthe homeless
the economically marginalizedunemployed

Employee

JargonPlain
vehicle appearance operativecar-washer
environmental hygienistjanitor

Readers see through such dressing-up of the truth. If you want to hide the truth, don’t tell a categorical inaccuracy, a counter-factual proposition, an inoperative statement, a strategic misrepresentation, or a terminological inexactitude —simply tell a lie.

Acronyms and abbreviations

The English Defence Minister, George Robertson, tried cutting out abbreviations and acronyms at the Ministry of Defence. “I soon realized solving Bosnia would be easier.”

Avoid as many as you can.

Try to keep them to a maximum of two a page.

Use them only if they are convenient for your readers.

Make sure all your readers know exactly what they mean.

Use them if spelling them out would annoy your readers.

Convert as many as possible into words.

Use full words. For example: Vice President, not VP.

Use a shortened word form. For example: each camera, not each CCTV unit.

Use an alternative. For example: computer memory, not RAM.

If you must use an abbreviation or acronym, spell it out the first time you use it. For example: Computer-based training (CBT).

If your readers know the abbreviation or acronym, there’s no need to spell it out.

Other problems with Acronyms and Abbreviations

California Driver History Report Abbreviations For Words

Create Abbreviations For Words

  1. They are often inconsistent, even in the same document. For example: IBM and I.B.M.

  2. They can cause unintentional repetition.
    • BACS system—Banks’ Automated Clearing System System.
    • PIN number—Personal Identification Number Number.
    • ATM machine—Automated Teller Machine Machine.
  3. They cause mistakes and inconsistencies with apostrophes.

  4. The rules for plurals and possessives of abbreviations are the same rules as those for full words. For example: The three PCs in the RDU’s conference room need new screens.

  5. They often appear only once in a document. Writers go to the trouble of defining an abbreviation, never to use it again in the document.

Word Abbreviations List

The last word

California Driver History Report Abbreviations For Words Definitions

“Let abbreviations and acronyms RIP”