64: Under The Surface

Adventures in Odyssey #64: Under the Surface (Download) (0) No Reviews yet. Quantity discounts available. Quantity Price; Quantity -+ Add to Shopping Cart. Title: #64: Under the Surface: 6 Stories on Heroes, Secrets, By: Focus on the Family Format: Compact disc Vendor: Adventures in Odyssey/Tyndale Publication Date: 2018 Weight: 4 ounces: ISBN: ISBN-13: 345 Ages: 8-12 Series: Adventures in Odyssey Stock No: WW979340. We've got a review of album 64 of Adventures in Odyssey, Under the Surface and then we are joined in the studio by AIO co-creator, Phil Lollar. We talk with Phil about why Connie has not progressed more in life, the AIO guides, some BTS info on the two-part AIO episode, David and Absalom, Iliad House, the Blackgaard Chronicles book series, the Young Whit book series, and a whole lot more. Find the System area, located under the large Windows logo. Within there, next to System type, it will say either 64-bit Operating System or 32-bit Operating System. The second bit of information, either x64-based processor or x86-based processor, indicates the hardware architecture. Audio CD-Adventures In Odyssey #64: Under The Surface 6 Stories Heroes (2 CD). Condition is 'Very Good'. Shipped free with USPS Media Mail (please allow for extra time in transit due to holiday and CoVid shipping conditions). Will ship via Priority Mail upon request but not free.

  1. 64: Under The Surface Currents
  2. 64: Under The Surface Pro 7

This article describes how to view the Windows registry by using 64-bit versions of Windows.

Original product version: Windows 10 - all editions
Original KB number: 305097


The registry in 64-bit versions of Windows is divided into 32-bit and 64-bit keys. Many of the 32-bit keys have the same names as their 64-bit counterparts, and vice versa.

The default 64-bit version of Registry Editor (Regedit.exe) that is included with 64-bit versions of Windows displays both 64-bit keys and 32-bit keys. The WOW64 registry redirector presents 32-bit programs with different keys for 32-bit program registry entries. In the 64-bit version of Registry Editor, 32-bit keys are displayed under the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareWOW6432Node registry key.

View 64-bit and 32-bit registry keys

You can view or edit both 64-bit and 32-bit registry keys and values by using the default 64-bit version of Registry Editor. To view or edit 64-bit keys, you must use the 64-bit version of Registry Editor (Regedit.exe). You can also view or edit 32-bit keys and values by using the 32-bit version of Registry Editor in the %systemroot%Syswow64 folder. There are no differences in the way you perform tasks between the 32-bit version of Registry Editor and the 64-bit version of Registry Editor. To open the 32-bit version of Registry Editor, follow these steps:

  1. Click Start, and then click Run.

  2. In the Open box, type %systemroot%syswow64regedit, and then click OK.


    You must close the 64-bit version of Registry Editor before you can open the 32-bit version (and vice versa) unless you start the second instance of Registry Editor with the -m switch. For example, if the 64-bit version of Registry Editor is already running, type %systemroot%syswow64regedit -m in step 2 to start the 32-bit version of Registry Editor.

To support the co-existence of 32-bit and 64-bit COM registration and program states, WOW64 presents 32-bit programs with an alternate view of the registry. 32-bit programs see a 32-bit HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftware tree (HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareWOW6432Node) that is completely separate from the true 64-bit HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftware tree. This isolates HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, because the per-computer portion of this tree resides within the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftware registry key.

To enable 64-bit/32-bit program interoperability through COM and other mechanisms, WOW64 uses a Registry Reflector that mirrors certain registry keys and values between the 64-bit and 32-bit registry views. The reflector is intelligent, in that is only reflects COM activation data.

Reflected keys

The WOW64 Registry reflector may modify the contents of keys and values during the reflection process to adjust path names, and so on. Because of this, the 32-bit and 64-bit contents may differ. For example, pathnames that contain the system32 registry entry are written as SysWOW64 in the 32-bit section of the registry. The following keys are reflected:

  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareClasses
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESoftwareEventSystem

Complete Guide to Surface Finish Symbols, Charts, RA, RZ, Measurements, and Callouts

Definition of Surface Finish

Before we get on with Surface Finish Symbols, let’s understand how Surface Finish is defined. Engineering prints call out a great many things in their attempt to make sure the part that gets made matches the designer’s intent. Aside from dimensions and tolerances, another important callout is Surface Finish.

Surface Finish is a measure of the overall texture of a surface that is characterized by the lay, surface roughness, and waviness of the surface. Surface Finish when it is intended to include all three characteristics is often called Surface Texture to avoid confusion, since machinists often refer to Surface Roughness as Surface Finish. Another term, analagous to Surface Texture, is Surface Topology.

This diagram gives an idea of how to think of the relationship of Waviness, Lay, and Roughness:

The relationship of Waviness, Lay, and Roughness…


The Lay is the direction of the predominant surface pattern, and is usually determined by the production method used to process the surface. Here are some typical Lay patterns:

Surface Roughness

Surface roughness is a measure of finely spaced surface irregularities. Surface roughness is usually what machinists refer to when talking about “surface finish.” When talking about all three characteristics, they may use the term “Surface Texture” more properly.


Surface Roughness speaks to fine detail imperfections, but there may also be much coarser irregularities. For example, a surface may be warped or deflected from the ideal.

Surface Finish and Product Function

How do product designers decide what surface finishes to require, and how should CNC machinists think about surface finishes?

There are a variety of considerations, and they may even vary for different stages in the manufacture of a particular part. For example, we may have a surface finish requirement on a casting that ensures the finish (think of it as the deviations of the surface of the casting from an ideal) is good enough that the allowance made for extra material that will be machined off in a future step is sufficent. If the casting is too imperfect, the trough of an imperfection may be below the expected machined surface of that future step.

Another important consideration is friction. Reducing surface roughness typically reduces friction which can be critical to reducing wear and increasing efficiency of sliding parts.

64: Under The Surface

The required surface finishes are very much determined by the function and use of the component. Ship’s propellors start out with fairly high surface finish standards but in actual use they erode pretty quickly. Optical and especially components used with X-Rays have some of the finest surface finish requirements achievable.

The goal of the designer is to specify surface finishes that are as coarse as possible but will still function within the part’s desired operating parameters. The goal of the machinist is to achieve surface finishes on parts that are as good as those required by the designer, but not better as that results in the cheapest to manufacture parts. It’s important for designer and manufacturer to agree on exactly which parameters (Ra, Rz, etc.) are to be used for inspecting and parts acceptance. While there are commonly accepted conversions between these, actually using the same parameters for the inspection that the designer used with the design always yields the best results.

Surface Finishes for Various Manufacturing Processes

Surface Finishes vary tremendously by the manufacturing process used to achieve them. A flame cut plate edge has a radically different surface finish than a ground surface, for example. Choosing a process that’s capable of achieving the desired surface finish is the first step in figuring out how to manufacture a part that requires a particular finish. Sometimes, more than one process must be overlaid to achieve the desired result cost-effectively.

Here’s a chart table showing the relative surface finish roughness of various manufacturing processes:

Relative Surface Finish Roughness of Manufacturing Processes…

For more on manufacturing processes and the cost of maintaining tight tolerances and surface finishes, see our article:

Measuring and Inspecting Surface Finish

Measurement implies characterizing something as a number–something that’s very important to CNC’ers.

There are a number of different characteristics we might measure with respect to Surface Finish. Two of the most important are the height of the roughness peaks and their separation, often referred to as “Ra” and “D”:

Ra and D are two important surface finish parameters…

The Surface Finish Units we would use for parameters like Ra would be either micro-inches (English or Imperial) or micrometers (Metric). Our chart of surface finishes by manufacturing process (see above) gives both.

When we try to measure a surface finish, the methods fall into three categories:

Profiling Techniques: Here a high resolution probe is used to measure the surface. Think of a sensitivity more in line with a phonograph needle than a typical CNC Probe.

Area Techniques: With an area technique, a finite area is measured and this provides a statistical average of the peaks and valleys. Examples of area techniques include optical scattering, ultrasonic scattering, and capacitance probes. Area techniques are easier to automate and faster to execute, but profiling techniques are often more accurate.

Microscopy Techniques: These techniques are usually more qualitative because they rely on measurement of contrast to provide information about peaks and valleys.

Instrumenets used to measure Surface Roughness using these various techniques are called Profilometers.

Pocket Profilometer…

Who Makes the World's Best Screwdrivers?

Seriously. And don't think it's Snap On or Craftsman.

Listen, I love 'World's Best' articles. Why? Because no matter who you are, you deserve to experience the very best. Particularly the very best of something you will use often, like a screwdriver. So check it out and see. We'll show you 8 brands that are far better than the average screwdriver.

Surface Finish Units From RA To RZ

Ra – Average Roughness

Ra is also known as Arithmetic Average (AA) or Center Line Average (CLA). It is the average roughness in the area between the roughness profile and its mean line. Graphically, Ra is the area between the roughness profile and its centerline divided by the evaluation length. The evaluation length is normally five sample lengths where each sample length is equal to one cutoff length.

Ra is by far the most commonly used Surface Finish parameter. One reason it is so common is that it is fairly easy to take the absolute value of a signal and integrate the signal using analog electronics, so Ra could be measured by instruments that contain no digital circuits.

Ra, while common, is not sufficient to completely characterize the roughness of a surface. Depending on the application, surfaces with the same Ra can perform quite differently. Here are 4 surfaces with the same Ra and quite different shapes:


All four surfaces have the same Ra but quite different shapes…

To distinguish these differences, more parameters are needed.

Rmax – Vertical distance from highest peak to lowest valley

Rmax is particularly sensitive to anomalies such as scratches and burrs that may not be obvious from measures such as Ra that rely on averages.

Rz – Preferred by many Europeans

Rz is often preferred to Ra in Europe and particularly Germany. Instead of measuring from centerline like Ra, Rz measures the average of the 5 largest peak to valley differences within five sampling lengths. While Ra is relatively insensitive to a few extremes, Rz is quite sensitive since it is the extremes it is designed to measure.

Surface Roughness Grades: “N” Numbers

Here is a chart table showing how Roughness Grade Numbers convert to Ra numbers:

Roughness Grade Numbers and Ra Measures…

Surface Roughness of Abrasive Grits and Sandpaper

One approach to Surface Finish is to use abrasives or sand the surface. This chart converts from abrasive grit to Surface Finish Ra values:

64: Under The Surface Currents

Surface Finish Math and Equations


Ra = CLA = (M1 + M2 + M3 + M4) / 4


M1, M2, … Mn are measure values

Average Roughness in micro-meters or micro-inches. Ra is the arithmetic mean deviation of the profile
RcMean height of profile irregularities
RkuKurtosis of the profile
RmaxMaximum roughness depth
RmrMaterial Ration of the profile
RpRp = MAX( M1, M2, M3, … )Max profile peak height
RqRq = RMSRoot mean square deviation of the profile
RskSkewness of the profile
RtMax height of the profile
RvRv = MIN( M1, M2, M3, … )Max Profile Valley Depth
RyMax height of the profile

Rz = Ra x 7.2

This is a very ROUGH estimate and not an exact conversion!

Avg Max height of the profile
Rz ISORoughness Height
RPMAverage max profile peak height
RMSRMS = SQRT( (M1^2 + M2^2 + M3^2 + M4^2) / 4 )Root Mean Square
CLACLA = RaCenter Line Average
Cut-Off LengthLength required for sample
NN = Ra (um) x 40New ISO (Grade) Scale Numbers

Surface Finish Symbols, Callouts, and Standards

In the United States, surface finish is usually specified using the ASME Y14.36M standard. The rest of the world commonly uses International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 1302.

Callouts and symbols used for different surface finishes can be slightly different, so we’ll look at a couple.

ISO Surface Finish Symbols and Callouts

ANSI Surface Finish and Callouts

Surface Finish Symbols and Callout Example

GD&T Surface Finish


GD&T specifies parameters like Flatness, but these are not really surface finish. To specify surface finish use either the ISO or ANSI symbols.

Surface Finish Cheat Sheet

A super handy Surface Finish “Cheat Sheet”:

Citrix workspace for mac 1812. Factors Affecting Surface Finish

There are many factors that affect surface finish, with the biggest being the manufacturing process (see table above). For machining processes, such as milling, turning, and grinding, factors such as cutting tool selection, machine tool condition, toolpath parameters, feeds, speeds, tool deflection, cut width (stepover), cut depth, coolant, and vibration are just a few of the many.

Tips and Examples:

– When Face Milling, use a cutting tool with a lead angle other than 90 degrees. A 45 degree lead angle facemill will produce a finer finish.

– Use inserts with a larger radius. A toroidal cutter or copy mill can often leave a better finish than other insert geometries.

– Unless the insert height on your face mill can be individually adjusted, a fly cutter often leaves the best surface finish.

Feeds and Speeds and Surface Finish

In general, adjust feeds and speeds for a lower chip load at the same rpms for a better finish. Take a finish pass that’s relatively light as well. Make sure as you’re doing this to avoid rubbing, which is very hard on tool life.

Our G-Wizard Calculator software has a handy “Tortoise-Hare” slider that makes it easy to dial in proper feeds and speeds for a finishing pass:

64: Under The Surface Pro 7

G-Wizard’s Tortoise-Hare slider for dialing in your finish…

G-Wizard will also warn you if rubbing is a risk, which will help you avoid that problem.

Ballnose Scallops and 3D Profiling Surface Finish

If you’re 3D Profiling, each pass of the ballnosed cutter leaves a “scallop” in the surface of the material. Our G-Wizard Calculator software has a special Mini-Calc that will help you adjust for a scallop height that delivers the required surface finish:

Ballnose Surface Finish Calculator…

Enter the maximum scallop height and G-Wizard will tell you the resulting RA and RMS surface finish as well as calculate the stepover. BTW, if you want to know how to pick optimal stepovers and tool diameters for 3D Profiling, we’ve got an article on that too!

Surface Finish While Turning

Turning is very similar to 3D profiling in that the stepover, in this case determined by the feedrate while turning, results in scallops that match the shape of the turning insert. We use this to good effect when turning threads, but if we want a smooth shaft, we’ll have a surface finish requirement that must be met. That will determine feedrate and insert nose radius we can use for the job. G-Wizard has a nice calculator for that too:

Surface Finish Turning Calculator…

Surface Roughness Conversion Chart Tables – Metric and Imperial

64: under the surface pro 7
Cut-off Length
Ra (µm)Ra (µinches)RMSRtNinmm

Free Software that Will Make Anyone a Better CNC'er or Engineer

Seriously. Our G-Wizard software is chock full of the handiest calculators and reference materials ever. Beats the heck out of handbooks and spreadsheets. GD&T, Hardness Conversion, Material Size/Weight/Volume, Fasteners, Over 2000 Threads, and more. Hundreds of thousands of folks just like you have used it.

4.8/5(27 votes )